Arduino Video Tutorial 07- Crystal Ball (Magic 8-Ball)

/
Hi my name is Massimo Banzi

Hi my name is Massimo Banzi

and I like to make things.

Welcome to another

Arduino tutorial video.

Today we are going to build

version of the magic 8ball (Crystall Ball)

This is a

simple device with a LCD screen

that provides a different answer

every time is being shaken.

So, let's try. Look at this.

8ball says: Outlook good.

How does this project all work?

We have a sensor,

which is the tilt-sensor over here

that contains a small ball

sitting on two contacts.

When the tilt sensor is vertical

the ball sits on the contacts,

closes the circuit and acts like

a push button that is been pressed.

When you shake the board

the ball bounces off the contacts

and opens the circuit and is almost like

when you release your finger from a button.

The data from the sensor

goes into the Arduino

and there is a software that detects

that you are shacking the Arduino

and picks a random answer

and displays in on this LCD display.

It is fairly simple to connect

an LCD screen to Arduino

and this one in particular

because it is a character based LCD,

so it contains already electronics

on the LCD module itself

that can receive data from the Arduino

in terms of character codes

and then display the characters

on the LCD screen in the right position.

Let's have a look at the circuit.

We have the LCD module here.

We are bringing four wires

from four Arduino pins

to the LCD module.

Those four wires carry the data

from the Arduino to the LCD screen.

Then we have an extra two pins

connected to the Arduino board

that are used in the communication between

the Arduino and the LCD screen.

Then we power the LCD screen.

You see there are a red and a black wire

coming from the plus and minus rails.

Then there is this potentiometer.

This potentiometer here is used

to generate a voltage

between 0 and 5 volts

that is applied to the contrast PIN

so if I start turning this potentiometer

you can see that the contrast

on the display changes

so we have to tweak it

until the value makes the display

work properly.

So this can be tweaked

depending also on the angle

that you watch the LCD.

As I said: data,

a couple of control lines,

power, contrast

and this is all we need

in order to connect to the LCD module.

Here we have the tilt sensor.

It is wired up exactly

like a regular push button

so we have one leg

of the tilt sensor

which is connected to a resistor

to ground, the other one

is connected to five volts

and the place when the resistor

and the tilt sensor connect

is where we connect a wire

that goes to an input on the Arduino board,

then the Arduino can read

if the tilt sensor is connected or not.

So, when I shake... like this...

Arduino detects the shaking

and changes the answer on the screen.

So, to recap we have a tilt sensor

connected to the Arduino

and we have six wires

coming from the Arduino

and connecting to the LCD screen.

The data that goes from the Arduino

to the LCD screen is actually

represented as 8 bit numbers,

but we wire up only

four wires and we use

a special mode in the LCD display

that carries 8 bit data,

4 bits at a time.

Using the LCD would require

to write quite a lot of code

but luckily there is

a liquid cristal library

inside the Arduino platform

that allows you to control

this class of characteral LCD displays

in a very simple way.

Now we are going to have a look at the code

and we are going to figure out

how everything works.

Lets look at the code.

We start by including

the liquidCrystal library

so we use #include

<liquidCrystal.h>.

This can be done, actually,

by selecting appropriate import library menu

from the IDE,

and then once we have included

the liquidCrystal library into our code

we have to tell the library

which one are the pins

that are connected to the LCD.

So, we specify 12, 11, 5, 4, 3 and 2.

These are the pins we are using here

to convey the four pins of data,

then the RS and RW pins

that are used in the hand-shacking

and in the communication between

the Arduino and the LCD.

Once we have done that

we are ready to use the LCD screen

so we define another constant:

switchPin=6.

This pin number 6

is where we connect the tilt sensor,

switchState again is a variable

used to store the state,

the current state of the tilt switch.

And then we have another variable

called prevSwitchState

and the fact that we need to

store the current and the previous

value of a certain switch

will become clear later.

Now we have another integer

variable called "reply".

Let's look at the setup() function.

We open the communication

with the LCD screen by using

lcd.begin()

and then in the begin() function

we specify 16 and 2

to tell the library

that the LCD we are using

has two lines of sixteen characters each

because there are many different types

of LCD screen like this,

so when we initialize the communication

we have to specify the size

of the LCD display.

Then we use pinMode()

to tell Arduino that switchPin

is an input

and then we use lcd.print()

to write the first line

at the top that says "Ask the".

Then we use another interesting function

of the LCD library: lcd.setCursor()

setCursor() allows us

to specify each column and row

we want to start printing from.

So I can move the cursor

anywhere on the LCD display

by specifying the position.

With the last line in the setup()

we print the second line on the screen

lcd.print("Magic 8ball!")

To recap:

in the setup() we are basically

opening the communication with the LCD screen,

preparing the switch pin to be an input

and then we print on the two lines

of the display "Ask the" "Magic 8ball!".

Then let's get into the loop.

The first line in the loop

stores the current state of the switch

into switchState by doing

a digitalRead() on the pin.

And then we say:

if switchState is different then

the prevSwitchState

this if-statement is used to figure out

if the state of the button

has recently changed,

because we want to provide

a new answer on the screen

only when the state of the switch changes

and the state of the switch changes

only when I shake the circuit

and the ball inside the tilt-switch

jumps up and down.

So if switchState

and prevSwitchState are different

then we can move on and we can say

"if (switchState == LOW)"

then actually generate a new reply.

So we start from clearing the display

by using lcd.clear(),

then we generate

a random number between 0 and 7

that is stored into the "reply" variable.

Then we setCursor() to 0, 0

which is the top left corner of the screen.

We do lcd.print("8ball says:"),

then we set the cursor on the second

line of the display

by doing lcd.setCursor (0, 1)

and then we use an instruction

called "switch" that

allows us to run different

parts of code

depending on the value

of the specific variable.

In this case we switch

based on the value

of the "reply" variable.

So, if the number

that was generated randomly is 0

we are going to lcd.print()

on the screen the word "Yes".

Then we have a statement

called "break" that tells

Arduino that we are done

executing the code in that section

and we want to exit the switch-statement.

Then, for every particular value

that the variable can assume,

we have 0, 1, 2, 3

and each one of them corresponds to a message.

So we have "Unsure", "Ask again",

"Outlook good", "No".

Once we are done going

through the switch-statement

the screen will have an answer

and then at the very bottom of the code

we have one line that says

"prevSwitchState = switchState".

So the current state

of the switch "switchState"

is not current anymore.

At the end of your code that's old,

it's the previous state.

So we store it in the previous state

and we go back to the beginning

where the first line

is taking a new value

into "switchState"

and this allows us to

detect every time the value changes.

We got to the end of the code

and this is the end result.

So, I'm going to press the reset button

so we can start the code from the beginning.

You see "Ask the Magic 8ball!".

I'm going to shake this

and the Magic 8ball says "Yes"

so I have to ask a question:

"Was this video cool?".

"Yes", the Magic 8ball says "Yes".

So I think this is a very good conclusion

for this video.

I hope you enjoyed the video

and remember: you have to build this tutorial,

you have to hack it

and you have to share the results

on the internet

because Arduino is you.

Vocabulary

Expressions / Collocations